Why are the tables and chairs so small in Vietnam?
One of the peculiar things about Vietnam is that some of the most delicious food is served on the tiniest chairs and tables.
If you’ve traveled in Vietnam, you’ve likely had this experience: you are enjoying a delicious Banh Mi while awkwardly trying to fit your knees under a child-like blue plastic table. Why? You ask yourself. Why are the tables and chairs so small in Vietnam?
The explanation behind the tiny-furniture phenomenon is fascinating, and it elucidates the remarkable economic history of Vietnam.
Are Vietnamese Short?
We can do-away with the oft-proposed explanation for the tiny-table phenomenon as a result of the population’s height. It may have been a contributing factor in the past, but it is not the main explanation today.
It is true that older generations of Vietnamese suffered high-rates of “stunting” — a reduction in average height due to malnourishment. We discuss this phenomenon in another article about “Why are Vietnamese so short?”
But today, the Vietnamese are getting taller as people now generally have access to a regular amounts of high-quality protein that, within living memory, was once a rare luxury and only possible during sacred celebrations. (“My wish for the whole year was to have a full bowl of rice on Tet” remarked a sixty-year old woman, thinking of her childhood.)
With stunting is no longer a national issue, the tiny tables and tiny chairs still persist, even though Vietnamese themselves are getting taller. So, we must dig deeper for other explanations behind the tiny furniture phenomenon…
Pop-Up Businesses and Side-Hustles
One reason for Vietnam’s fondness for tiny chairs & tables is due to the prevalence of pop-up street restaurants. We absolutely love this about Vietnam: at breakfast and lunch, the sidewalks come alive with semi-professional pop-up street vendors, serving some of the best food in the country.
Even brick-and-mortar shop-owners will get in on the action; for example, it is not uncommon for a piano-repairmen to make some extra cash at breakfast and lunch by deploying tiny plastic tables and chairs to serve some homemade noodles in his shop.
In this environment, the Vietnamese tiny chairs and tiny tables make sense: they can be quickly deployed, quickly stacked-up, easily moved-around, and easily stored.
However, the pop-up street-food phenomenon is only part of the story behind the tiny chairs and tiny tables, because even established businesses with brick-and-mortar properties will still use them (sometimes). So, we must dig deeper for other explanations …
Subsidy Era Hang-Overs
After unification of North and South Vietnam in 1976, and before the brilliant Doi Moi economic liberalizations of 1986, Vietnam lived through the Subsidy Era: a time of centrally-planned economics and collectivization of property.
During that time, there were no private-businesses nor accumulation of personal capital. For example, the government provided citizens with the fabric with which to make their own clothes. Farms and factories were collectively-owned and nominally government-run.
In that anti-capitalist and anti-entrepreneur atmosphere, people needed to do black-market side-hustles in order to survive, such as pop-up restaurants.
To do so, they needed to be nimble and ephemeral — because it was illegal to build a business and accumulate wealth, there was no incentive to raise funds and build a capital stock of large furniture. Doing so would be risky.
Even after economic liberalization, in which people were once again allowed to own their own property, the previous mindset continued — afterall, who could have predicted that the liberalizing-reforms would work and that Vietnam would become an economic power-house? People would wonder whether their recently-bestowed freedoms and economic experiments would suddenly reverse and return to collectivization. In hindsight, one forgets that a return to capitalism in Vietnam wasn’t an inevitable outcome.
The cultural legacy was set: in order to start a business, Vietnamese people learned to be small and nimble; to serve and work-hard, rather than to make risky capital investments — after all, such capital could be taken away and were taken away in the past.
Tiny plastic chairs and tiny blue tables are iconic of a legacy mindset whose origins lie a time without firm property rights.
Credit, or Lack Thereof
Global retail-lending has collapsed since the 2008 Great Financial Crisis –in Vietnam, it was never high to begin with. Historically, there wasn’t widespread availability of cheap credit with which to start businesses. Even today, there isn’t a system of FICO scores for normal people to demonstrate their credit worthiness, and so getting a loan to front a business remains difficult.
Instead, the Vietnamese have a quick-willed, can-do attitude to just start a business with what they have or what they can easily acquire, i.e. tiny plastic furniture, instead of large capital outlays.
In some ways, this is a more forgiving and less-risky as compared to the exorbitant capital requirements to start a brick-and-mortar business in the West.
The Love of Tiny Tables in Vietnam
The next time you visit Vietnam and sit in a tiny chair on a bustling street in Hanoi, don’t winch and scoff at the child-like furniture like a spoiled, petulant foreigner! Instead, think of the tiny furniture as an icon of the indelible entrepreneurial spirit of the Vietnamese people, and a reminder of the risks one takes to merely serve others and build wealth.